Basic knowledge about plastic lubricants

During the processing, the polymer melt and the processing machinery surface are prone to friction, which reduces the melt flowability, and severe friction causes the surface of the film to become rough, lack of luster or flow pattern. Therefore, lubricants that improve lubricity, reduce friction, and reduce interfacial adhesion are very important. At the same time, in addition to improving the fluidity, the lubricant can also function as a melt accelerator, anti-blocking and antistatic agent, and a slip agent. The amount of lubricant is generally between 0.5% and 1%. When selecting, it should be noted that the internal and external equilibrium of the flow properties of the polymer should be considered; the melting point of the external lubricant should be different from the molding temperature by about 10 ° C to 30 ° C to form a complete film.
When selecting a lubricant in production, it should be made to meet the following requirements:
1. High and long-lasting lubrication;
2. The compatibility with the resin is moderate, the balance of internal and external lubrication; no frosting, not easy to scale;
3. The surface gravity is small, the viscosity is small, the expansion at the interface is good, and the interface layer is easy to form;
4. Try not to reduce the various excellent properties of the polymer, and does not affect the secondary processing properties of the plastic;
5. It has excellent heat resistance and chemical stability, and does not decompose or volatilize during processing;
6. Does not corrode equipment, does not pollute the film, and has no toxicity.
Lubricants can be divided into external lubricants and internal lubricants:
The role of the external lubricant is primarily to improve the friction of the polymer melt with the hot metal surface of the processing equipment. It is less compatible with the polymer and easily migrates out of the melt, so it forms a thin layer of lubrication at the interface between the plastic melt and the metal.
The internal lubricant has good compatibility with the polymer, and it acts to reduce the cohesive force between the polymer molecules inside the polymer, thereby improving the internal friction heat generation and melt flowability of the plastic melt.
Commonly used external lubricants are stearic acid and its salts; internal lubricants are low molecular weight polymers. Some lubricants have other functions. In fact, every kind of lubricant has the effect of fulfilling certain requirements. It always works together with internal and external lubrication, but it is more prominent in one aspect. The same lubricant will exhibit different lubrication effects in different polymers or under different processing conditions. For example, under high temperature and high pressure, the internal lubricant will be extruded to become an external lubricant.

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