I. Risks of safe driving under special weather and road conditions
(I) Traffic safety risks in rainy or heavy rain conditions:
1 , the environment is dark, visibility is poor, the driver's vision is not open, the line of sight is unclear, the right person, vehicle, object and road conditions can not make a correct judgment;
2. The road is slippery, the friction coefficient between the wheel and the road surface is reduced, the adhesion is also small, and the braking capacity is reduced;
3 ã€Slippage, deviation or tail-flipping are likely to occur when braking measures are taken during cornering or emergency situations;
4. Pedestrians and cyclists are prone to contending with the car, crossing the road illegally, and running red lights;
5. Problems such as landslides, landslides and road collapses, damage, and road surface water are prone to occur;
6. Road surface water makes the original pits, dangerous points or obstacles of the road surface difficult to be found;
7. The surface of the road is generally full of stagnant water, which can easily lead to side slippage and control failure.
8. Dense rain causes visual obstacles, reduced visibility, and visual fatigue. It is impossible to correctly judge the distance between the front car and obstacles.
(II) Traffic Safety Risks in Ice and Snow Conditions
1. The flying snowflakes affect the driver's line of sight. The strong reflection of snowflakes causes the driver to produce blinding snow blindness, resulting in decreased vision and misjudgment;
2. Difficulties in starting and the vehicle is slipping;
3. The road surface is slippery and hard, the friction coefficient between the wheel and the road when the vehicle is running is reduced, the adhesion between the wheel and the road surface is reduced, and the brake braking capacity is reduced;
4. In the case of cornering or emergency situations, it is easy to directly cause the vehicle to turn over, collide with the rear-end collision, or even collide with the collision accident;
5. The uphill section starts. Sometimes it will slip backwards due to skidding;
6 , the vehicle is prone to frost phenomenon;
7. Heavy snow makes the original pits, pit road sections and other dangerous points or obstacles difficult to be found, affecting the safety of traffic;
8. Pedestrians and cyclists fell due to slippery roads;
9 , winter road friction coefficient is low, the external temperature is low, the tire is brittle, and the aging of the tire is accelerated.
(III) Traffic Safety Risks in Strong Winds
1. Increased vehicle running resistance, increased vehicle load, affecting vehicle stability;
2. Pedestrians or cyclists are often distracted by dust and sand entering the eyes or winds, interference with hats and helmets or clothing, and blown objects in front of them;
3. The cyclist can easily stray from the side of the line and collide with the motor vehicle;
4. When the vehicle exceeds the front large vehicle, the convection interference between the two vehicles is easy to occur, which affects the stability of the vehicle.
5. Strong winds blow down the trees along the road, which can easily lead to traffic congestion.
(4) Traffic safety risks in the event of sandstorms:
1. The visibility of the road is low and the driver's sight is not clear;
2. Increased vehicle running resistance affects the stability of travel;
3. Vehicles with high center of gravity during driving, as well as the danger of traffic accidents caused by strong sandstorm airflows;
4. It is easy to cause people's psychological panic and escape from hiding in all directions, resulting in chaotic traffic and causing traffic accidents.
(5) Traffic safety risks in heavy fog weather conditions:
1 , fog shrouded, poor visibility of traffic, seriously affecting the line of sight;
2. The driver's vision is unclear and his sight is blocked, which is not conducive to the correct observation, mastery, and judgment of the road conditions and traffic environment in front;
3. Vehicles and pedestrians on the road will appear to steal roads or travel on normal roads due to unclear sight;
4 , wet road surface with water, coupled with tire tread moisture, the friction between the two reduced, resulting in poor braking effect;
5 , the driver is prone to impatient emotions while driving;
(6) Traffic Safety Risks in High-Temperature Weather Conditions:
1. The driver is prone to fatigue and drowsiness;
2. People's resilience is declining, they are unresponsive, and it is easy to make mistakes;
3. Asphalt pavement becomes soft and slippery due to high-temperature exposure, which reduces the friction coefficient between the wheel and the road surface, reduces the adhesion, and decreases the vehicle braking force.
4 , the dual role of high temperature and high speed friction, prone to wheel softening and puncture accidents;
5 , the air is heated to expand, the density decreases, so that the mixture gas entering the cylinder is not easily ignited by the spark of the spark plug, making it difficult for the engine to start;
6. The temperature of the automobile tank keeps rising, the capacity is not distributed, and the power of the engine is affected. It may even cause "spontaneous combustion" and "self-explosion";
7 , the expansion of the vehicle parts deformation, lighter parts will accelerate the wear and tear, severe parts will burn the parts;
8 , high temperature and high pressure will also cause the engine "open pot", poor lubrication system, machinery damage and other mechanical failure and oil circuit failures.
(VII) Traffic Safety Risks in Cold Weather Conditions:
1. The temperature difference between the inside and the outside of the cab is too large. The air in the room freezes on the windshield of the car to form a layer of mist gas, which reduces the transparency of the windshield.
2. The driver's attention is unclear. The driver is easily distracted by the cold and affects the correct judgment of the road condition in front and people, vehicles, and objects. The hands and feet are stiff and numb, the response is slow, and the mobility is reduced;
3 , the cooling water in the engine cooling system is prone to icing and expansion, and the system piping is damaged;
4. The resistance of the lubrication system increases, the start-up is difficult, it is difficult to start after the flameout during driving, etc. The technical performance of the motor vehicle itself is faulty;
5 , the bridge is easy to freeze.
(VIII) Traffic Safety Risks at Night:
1. Visibility is low, the driver's effective visual field is narrowed, visual acuity is reduced and sight distance is shortened;
2. It is particularly sensitive to light, especially strong light. It will produce a blind area of â€‹â€‹sight (backlit area), and easily hit the parked vehicles, pedestrians or obstacles in the blind sight;
3 , increase the difficulty of the driver to observe, the longer the burden on the eyes, the driver's reaction time will be extended, there will be visual errors;
4. Night is the trough of human physiology, prone to fatigue and drowsiness, its observation ability, reaction ability, judgment ability and operation skills are relatively affected, which is not conducive to the normal play of the driver;
5. There are few people on the road at night and people are scarce, which makes it easy for the driver to develop the mentality of driving fast trains;
6. There are many phenomenon of illegal pedestrians at night. They do not walk zebra crossings and are free to walk freely. They interfere with the normal driving of vehicles and are likely to cause accidents.
(9) Traffic safety risks in hot and humid weather:
1 , poor sleep, listlessness when driving;
2 , the driver's emotions are irritable and impatience;
3 , prone to arbitrary, blind driving, pique driving phenomenon;
4 , the body sweating more, limbs are not flexible.
II. Measures against risks of safe driving under special weather and road conditions
Different reduction measures are adopted for different bad weather, and the best way to avoid risks is to not go out of the car or take less cars in bad weather. In the case of travel, the following preventive measures should be taken.
(a) Traffic safety risk response measures in case of rain or heavy rain:
1. Obey the traffic rules, turn on the wiper in time, turn on the lights when necessary;
2. Concentrate on energy, pay close attention to the road environment in front, and the movement of pedestrians;
3 , reduce the speed, no braking;
4. It is forbidden to rush the direction. When you need to turn, decelerate first, increase the turning radius properly, and slowly turn the steering wheel;
5. Keep a large safety distance with the vehicle ahead and maintain a large lateral safety distance with the pedestrians on the roadside;
6 , when driving in the mountains to strictly control the speed, try to drive at low speed;
7 , avoid wading, try to choose safe roads, always pay attention to the loose roadbed and possible collapse;
8. Drive on your own route, drive as far as possible in the middle position, do not drive on the edge of the road;
9. If you encounter water in the road area and do not see the depth, you need to get off the vehicle and check it to ensure safe passage.
10. When rain is particularly intensive, try to reduce the number of vehicles. If you are driving, you can make a short stay in a safe area.
(II) Traffic safety risk response measures in the case of ice and snow:
1. Obey the traffic rules, slow down, concentrate, and drive cautiously;
2. Prepare anti-skid tools such as shovels, anti-skid chains, triangular wood, etc.
3 , use snow chains in time according to need;
4. Controlling the speed of the vehicle and maintaining a safe distance from the vehicle in front is the key to driving on ice and snow;
5. The taboos on the road hurry to hit the steering wheel;
6 , when you need to turn, please slow down, increase the radius of the turn and slowly hit the steering wheel;
7 , in order to avoid side slip, hold the steering wheel with both hands, the operation should be smooth, slow start lift slowly from the lift, the clutch release is slower than usual, the throttle is smaller than usual;
8 , the phenomenon of wheel slippage occurs at the start, can be linked to a higher gear than usual, such as a small car can be used to start the second block, when the truck empty car with a third block, heavy car with a second block start;
9. Try not to stop when going uphill.
10. Add anti-freeze fluid in time and pay attention to the vehicle's thermal insulation. When necessary, the tires exchange positions;
11. If there is snow cover on the unclear section of the road, stop it and check it to see if there is no dangerous material on the road.
12. Observe the movement of pedestrians on the road, take the initiative to avoid pedestrians and vehicles, make courtesy, do not take the road, and always maintain a large horizontal safety distance;
13 , check the tire pressure. Tyre pressure should not be too high, but it should not be too low.
(III) Traffic Safety Risk Response Measures in Strong Winds:
1 , control the speed, smooth driving, driving should pay attention to prevent crosswind;
2. Pay attention to observing the movement of pedestrians on the road. Do not drive with pedestrians. Be more careful when crossing pedestrians or cyclists to maintain a larger horizontal safety distance.
3. When the roadside pedestrian or cyclist is found to be abnormal, stop immediately;
4. Overtaking is prohibited when the wind is strong;
5. When there are debris or trees or branches on the roadside, it is timely to stop and check. Only after confirming safety can you pass through.
(D) Traffic safety risk response measures in the event of sandstorms:
1. Try to reduce the number of vehicles. If there is a large dust storm, stop in a safe area and wait until the wind is running.
2. Strictly control the speed of driving, and always maintain a smooth driving;
3. Vehicles with higher center of gravity are forbidden to get out of the vehicle in the event of dust storms. Vehicles that are already on the road must immediately stop the vehicle in a safe zone.
4. Observe closely the movement of pedestrians on the road, maintain a large horizontal safety distance with pedestrians or cyclists, and find that pedestrians stop immediately when they run around.
(5) Traffic safety risk response measures in heavy fog weather conditions:
1. Strictly control the speed of driving, turn on fog lights, low beam lights and emergency flash lights;
2. Concentrate and pay close attention to the vehicles in front and roadside trends;
3 , driving to increase the distance with the car, ground horn, always reminding pedestrians and vehicles attention;
4 , do not blindly overtaking, it is best not to overtake, if you want to go beyond the front of the parked vehicles, to investigate whether this car is waiting for the opposite to the car, if there is no need to press the tweeter from its low speed through the left, and then on the right;
5. When the visibility is lower than the invisible front surface, the vehicle should be parked in a safe place and the hazard warning flash light should be turned on. Wait until the situation improves;
6 , to keep quiet, not impatient and impatient, careful, must be right-hand drive, all the way, in case of blind car drivers do not pique, eager to follow;
7. When there is a cloud of fog, it is necessary to strictly control the speed of the vehicle, maintain a sufficient safety distance, and strictly prohibit overtaking.
(6) Measures to deal with traffic safety risks in hot weather conditions:
1 , do a good job of cooling the sun;
2. Fatigue during driving. Immediately stop and rest.
3. Have a good night's sleep before leaving the bus and maintain a strong energy;
4 , when the asphalt surface is wet, slow down;
5. Check the tires and wheel hubs in time and find that the hub immediately stops when it is hot;
6. Dissipate heat in time to avoid excessive engine temperature and maintain sufficient engine coolant;
7. Check the vehicle in time to ensure that all parts are in good condition;
9. When the engine of the vehicle is found to open, immediately stop the inspection and add coolant. After the vehicle has been running for a period of time, stop and rest to avoid overheating of the engine.
(VII) Traffic safety risk response measures in cold weather conditions:
1 , open the warm air blowing glass, always keep the glass clean;
2 , keep warm in the cab, control the speed of driving;
3 , timely check engine coolant, must use standard antifreeze;
4 , pay attention to the engine warm-up, on the way to check the vehicle in time;
5. Travel slowly when crossing the bridge.
(VIII) Traffic safety risk response measures at night:
1. Turn on high-beam and tail lights, and change the light in time when the car is in motion;
2. Concentrate on driving and observe closely the roads and roadside movements, and find that there are unclear people and objects parking in time;
3. Stop and rest immediately when eyes are tired;
4 , rest on time, no fatigue driving, no special circumstances are strictly forbidden to drive late at night;
5 , strict control of speed;
6. Pay close attention to the movements of pedestrians at night and find that pedestrians are evasive when walking freely or walking in violation of regulations.
(9) Traffic safety risk response measures for hot and humid weather:
1 , pay attention to rest and maintain strong energy;
2 , keep quiet, as the saying goes: quiet, natural and cool, when you are impatient, you can take a short break;
3 , focus on energy, keep a clear head, keep safety responsibilities in mind, and donâ€™t start a gambling car;
4 , pay attention to cooling, keep clean, and rest in time.
(10) Response measures for landslides or mudslides in mountain areas
1. If the driving route passes through mountainous landslides or mudslides that have already occurred in the mountains, then it is forbidden to go to that road section, and the time or route of departure for the vehicle is re-adjusted to avoid the risk zone;
2. If there are sudden landslides or mudslides in the middle of a journey, concentrate first and keep a clear head. Keep in mind safety responsibilities. First, avoid vehicles and people from staying in dangerous areas. Start an emergency plan immediately and report the situation to the higher authorities. The on-site emergency rescue organization arranged to quickly and orderly evacuate personnel from the hazardous area;
3. If natural disasters such as landslides and mudslides have occurred during driving, you should drive the vehicle to a safe area and call the â€œ 110 â€ phone through the mobile phone when it is safe . It is important to note that do not dial mobile phones during thunderstorms. In conditional locations, emergency roadside telephone alarms are also available.
4. In the event of a natural disaster such as mudslides, follow-up vehicles should avoid docks, such as high slopes, on the right side and stop in order to observe the surrounding conditions of the roads and take appropriate measures for disaster avoidance. First, in the event of heavy rain in the mountains, the vehicle should be driven as far as possible to the outside to prevent the landslide from injuring the vehicle. If the road is blocked, the vehicle should be placed in a safe area and the police should be alerted. In the rain and after driving on the mountain road after the rain, if rocks and rocks land on the road, do not clear the roadblocks by yourself in case of unclear circumstances, so as to avoid personal injury caused by the subsequent fall of rocks. Second, after the occupants get off the train, they should observe the direction of the mudslides. Do not follow the direction in which mudslides may pour. Do not evade the trees and buildings, and avoid the mudslides in both directions. Do not stay on unstable slopes with loose soil and soil to avoid unbalanced slopes. Stay at a stable high place on the basement. Also try to bring as much clothing and food as possible when you escape.
(11) Countermeasures for driving a railway crossing
1. When a vehicle passes through a railway crossing, it shall be in accordance with the traffic signal or the command of the management personnel. When there is no traffic signal or command of the management personnel, the vehicle shall decelerate or stop and shall pass the safety confirmation;
2. It is strictly forbidden for vehicles to overtake, turn around, turn off, and stop at the railroad crossing;
3 , firmly refused to stay in the railway crossing, in the event of a breakdown in the crossing, the first alarm, report superior and related personnel, and immediately transferred personnel to a safe zone, and then as soon as possible to the vehicle pulled away from the crossing to a safe area;
4. When winter and fog days and rainy days pass through an unguarded railway crossing, you must get off the bus to understand the traffic conditions and confirm the safety before passing.
(12) Responses to earthquakes
1. When an earthquake is detected while driving, it should maintain a high degree of calm, prevent chaos caused by panic, and cause secondary accidents such as traffic accidents and subsequent fires;
2. Slowly slow down, park the vehicle on the right shoulder, and turn off the engine. To allow roads for emergency vehicles to get out of traffic and to prevent accidents, it is best to note that parking is not on the bridge or on the high slope formed by excavation;
3. After parking, you must turn on the radio and pay attention to traffic information. Do not operate alone until you receive a traffic instruction. When it is absolutely necessary to leave the car, the car key should be left so that the relevant personnel can move the car when needed;
4. When abnormal conditions or traffic accidents are found on the highway, emergency telephone calls should be made to contact or alert the relevant parties;
5. If there is no wide area where you can temporarily avoid the city road, you should immediately turn on the double flash emergency light, slow down and stop, park the car on the side of the road, then get off the vehicle and observe the situation and find a relatively safe position until After the earthquake, go on the road to a safe area.
6. If there is a high-rise building, organizers are evasive between the two cars. If there is an earthquake in the parking lot, and there is a lot of skyscrapers around the parking lot, you must get off the train immediately and organize the staff to get down or lie down between the two cars. When the building collapses, Large objects will be pressed on the car first, so that they will not directly hit the person.
7. Do not enter long bridges, dams, and tunnels during the earthquake. If you have entered, you must leave as soon as possible. If there is a road subsidence in the passing place, then you must stop and quickly leave the vehicle and seek temporary shelter in a nearby safe place. The driver should turn the front wheel to the right or left to prevent the vehicle from slipping during the earthquake;
8. When organizing personnel to choose safe and suitable locations for avoidance, they should try their best to choose flat, high-rise buildings. It is better to choose more people, which can provide convenience for later search and rescue;
9 , in the dangerous section of the special circumstances can also use the method of driving escape to avoid the disaster. When you drive to escape, you have to choose to escape to a place with a flat terrain or no over-high buildings.
The information in this article comes from the Internet and was reorganized and edited by China Rescue Equipment Network.
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